USRP Hardware Driver and USRP Manual  Version: 3.13.0.0-257-g89e3c67c7
UHD and USRP Manual
UHD Logging

During the operation of UHD, logging messages are created which UHD handles in a logging subsystem. Everything logging-related is defined in include/uhd/utils/log.hpp. See also The UHD logging facility

UHD itself never prints anything to stdout, which means that stdout can be used for applications using UHD. Actual logging messages are handled by separate logging backends. By default, UHD has two backends: A console backend, which prints logging messages to stderr (more accurately, to std::clog), and a file backend, which writes all logging messages into a log file.

Log levels

UHD defines the following log levels (see also Log levels):

  • Trace: Typical trace messages are along the lines of "this function is currently being executed" or "this is the current state of my local scope, the following variables have the following values". Trace message are numerous, and should usually be safe to ignore, unless some tricky debugging is happening which requires knowing exactly what UHD is doing when and where and how.
  • Debug: Messages should have this level when it's likely the message can be useful for debugging errorneus behaviour. A good reason to use debug level messages is when user input is in the mix.
  • Info: Whenever a message is usually supposed to be seen by the user, but it's indicating regular behaviour, it's 'info'. Message at this level are rare.
  • Warning: Anything that indicates something could be wrong, but operation can continue for now, is a warning.
  • Error: If something goes wrong, it's an error message. This is typically accompanied by termination of the program.
  • Fatal: SOMETHING'S REALLY WRONG

Whenever a log level is set, it means all log levels with higher severity are also printed. Example: If the log level is set to 'debug', it won't print messages that are at 'trace' severity, but it will print 'info' and all the other levels.

There are multiple ways to set the log level:

  • Minimum level: This is a compile-time option. At compile-time, it disables all log messages permanently that are below this log level.
  • Global level: The global level can be changed at runtime, and applies to all backends.
  • Per-backend level: For example, The logfile and the console output could have different logging levels.

Log levels are evaluated in this order. If the minimum level is 'debug', no 'trace' message will ever be printed. If the global level is 'info', no 'debug' message will ever be printed – but this can be changed at runtime. Finally, if a message has passed both the minimum and global levels, it is handled by the individual backends if their log levels are appropriately set.

For more info on how to set the individual log levels, see include/uhd/utils/log.hpp.

Logging Macros

When log messages are generated, the appropriate logging macros should always be used. There are two types of macros:

UHD_LOG_DEBUG("component", "message");
UHD_LOGGER_DEBUG("component") << "message";

The difference between those is, the former style is completely compiled out when the minimum log level is set accordingly, whereas the second one is not, but offers more flexibility through the streaming operators. Use the former if speed matters.

The macros require three pieces of information:

  • The log level. This is done by choosing the appropriate macro, e.g., UHD_LOGGER_DEBUG vs. UHD_LOGGER_INFO.
  • The component where the log message is originating from. This allows to filter log messages more easily.
  • The log message itself.

Logging Backends

Anything that acts upon a log message is called a backend. UHD defines two by default: A logfile, and a console backend. More backends can be added by calling uhd::log::add_logger().