USRP Hardware Driver and USRP Manual  Version: 003.010.002.000-0-tagged
UHD and USRP Manual
OctoClock

Feature list

  • Hardware Capabilities:
    • Fully integrated timing and clocking source with 8-way distribution (10 MHz and 1 PPS)
    • User selection between internal GPSDO (OctoClock-G) or external 10 MHz/1 PPS source
    • Ethernet bootloader for easy firmware upgrade
    • Source detection with automatic switch-over in case of failure or disconnect
    • Streaming GPS time and NMEA strings over Ethernet (OctoClock-G only)

Detecting an Ethernet-compatible device

Early OctoClock and OctoClock-G units did not have Ethernet functionality and will need to be upgraded to utilize it. To test whether or not you have this early model, connect your device via Ethernet to a computer with UHD 3.9.2 or above. The OctoClock will have a default IP address of 192.168.10.3.

Open a terminal and run this command:

ping 192.168.10.3

If you see an output similar to the following:

64 bytes from 192.168.10.3: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=3.01 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.10.3: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=1.92 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.10.3: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=1.78 ms

then you have an Ethernet-compatible device. If not, follow the instructions in the next section to upgrade your device.

NOTE: OctoClock and OctoClock-G devices must be used on 1-Gigabit Ethernet or higher.

Upgrading your device

Follow these steps to upgrade your device.

Getting the latest firmware images

The OctoClock's firmware is divided into two image files: octoclock_bootloader.hex and octoclock_r4_fw.hex. All image files can be found here, in version-specific ZIP files. Download the version corresponding to the version of UHD that you're running. You must use at least version 3.9.2.

Alternatively, if you already have UHD installed, then the correct images can be obtained by using the uhd_images_downloader utility. Once this is done, check your images directory, which is the following by default:

  • UNIX/Linux: /usr/local/share/uhd/images
  • Windows: C:\Program Files\UHD\share\uhd\images

Burning the bootloader onto the device

To burn the bootloader, you will need a 6-pin Atmel AVR programmer. We recommend the Atmel-ICE kit. The AVRISP mkII programmer, which is no longer sold but is still popular, is also compatible.

You will also need the AVRDude utility. To install it on a Linux system, run the following command, as appropriate:

  • Ubuntu: sudo apt-get install avrdude
  • Fedora: sudo yum install avrdude

Most other UNIX/Linux package distribution systems include the utility under the name avrdude.

NOTE: To use AVRDude with the Atmel-ICE programmer, you need at least version 6.1.

For Windows users, we provide an AVRDude executable here. Download and unzip the file, and you will see a directory containing the avrdude.exe executable.

Once AVRDude is set up on your machine, navigate to the directory containing the OctoClock firmware images and run the following command:

avrdude -p atmega128 -c atmelice_isp -P usb -U efuse:w:0xFF:m -U hfuse:w:0x80:m -U lfuse:w:0xEF:m -U flash:w:octoclock_bootloader.hex:i

If you are using a programmer other than the Atmel-ICE, replace "atmelice_isp" with the appropriate string for your programmer. Run the command:

avrdude -c help

to see the corresponding string for each programmer.

If all three LEDs in the left column on the front panel are lit, then the bootloader was successfully loaded onto the device.

On Linux, it might be necessary to run the avrdude commands as root, which can be done by preceding them with "sudo".

Uploading the firmware via Ethernet

Once the bootloader is installed on the device, run the uhd_find_devices utility. You should see an output similar to the following:

--------------------------------------------------
-- UHD Device 0
--------------------------------------------------
Device Address:
    addr: 192.168.10.3
    type: octoclock-bootloader

This means that UHD successfully recognizes your device's bootloader and can download the firmware image. Run the following command:

uhd_image_loader --args="type=octoclock,addr=192.168.10.3"

Once this completes, your OctoClock will load its firmware. Run the uhd_find_devices utility again, and the output should be similar to the following:

--------------------------------------------------
-- UHD Device 0
--------------------------------------------------
Device Address:
    addr: 192.168.10.3
    type: octoclock
    name:
    serial:

Updating the device's EEPROM

As a final step, the device's EEPROM will need to be updated. On the back of your device, you will see a label sticker with a serial number (labeled S/N) and a MAC address (labeled MAC). For later use, the MAC address will have to be used in a different format than is on the label. As an example, if the label lists the MAC address as 00802F112233, you will need to format it as 00:80:2F:11:22:33.

Update your device's EEPROM with the following command:

(UHD INSTALL DIRECTORY)/lib/uhd/utils/octoclock_burn_eeprom --args="addr=192.168.10.3" --values="mac-addr=(MAC HERE),ip-addr=192.168.10.3,netmask=255.255.255.0,gateway=192.168.10.1,serial=(SERIAL HERE),revision=4"

Power-cycle your device, and it should now be fully operational. To confirm, you can query your device in one of two ways.

Run the uhd_find_devices utility, and you will see basic information regarding the device. To see more specific information, run the following command:

octoclock_burn_eeprom --args="addr=192.168.10.3" --read-all

Using your device

The boot process

When the device is turned on, it will wait in the bootloader for one second, after which it will move into the primary firmware.

Selecting a reference

Both OctoClock models can input a 10 MHz reference and a 1 PPS signal via the SMA connectors EXT 10 MHZ INPUT and EXT PPS INPUT, respectively, located on the front of the device. Additionally, the OctoClock-G contains an internal GPSDO which provides its own internal references to the device.

There is a switch on the front panel of the device with two positions INTERNAL and EXTERNAL that specifies which reference will be used, when applicable. For the OctoClock, there is no internal timing or clocking source, so the OctoClock will always use external 10 MHz and 1 PPS sources, regardless of the position of the switch. For the OctoClock-G, there is an internal GPSDO which provides an internal 10 MHz and 1 PPS, so the switch will specify whether to use that internal timing and clocking source from the GPSDO, or whether to use an external timing and clocking source, such as those provided by a signal generator.

The LEDs in the left column show which reference (if any) the device is using. The top and middle LEDs, labeled INTERNAL and EXTERNAL, respectively, show which of the two references the device is using. The bottom LED indicates whether or not the device is actively using a reference. If no LEDs are lit, then the OctoClock is not using any reference and is not distributing a clock signal. The only situation in which all three LEDs are lit is when the device is in its bootloader, as described above.

Once the device is using a reference, connect SMA cables from any of the 10 MHz OUT and PPS OUT SMA connectors to distribute the signals to other devices.

Front Panel LEDs

The LEDs on the front panel show the current status of the device. Each LED is described below:

  • Internal: the device is using the internal GPSDO as the timing and clocking reference
  • External: the device is using an external reference as the timing and clocking reference
  • Status: the device is successfully distributing a 10 MHz and 1 PPS signal
  • PPS: the device has detected a 1 PPS signal
  • GPS Lock: the internal GPSDO has achieved a GPS lock (not necessary to distribute the signals)
  • Power: the device is receiving power

Communication with UHD

As with USRP devices, an OctoClock will appear when you run the uhd_find_devices utility. You can narrow your search to a specific device with the –args option, as seen below:

uhd_find_devices --args="addr=192.168.10.3"
uhd_find_devices --args="serial=F12345"

UHD provides a C++ API for communicating with an OctoClock device, the uhd::usrp_clock::multi_usrp_clock class. To instantiate the device or devices, use the factory function as seen below:

uhd::usrp_clock::multi_usrp_clock::sptr clock = uhd::usrp_clock::multi_usrp_clock::make("addr=192.168.10.3");
uhd::usrp_clock::multi_usrp_clock::sptr clocks = uhd::usrp_clock::multi_usrp_clock::make("addr0=192.168.10.4,addr1=192.168.10.5");

Once UHD starts a session with your device, you can use the uhd::usrp_clock::multi_usrp_clock::get_sensor() function to query for different information from your device. All OctoClock devices provide the following sensors:

  • ext_ref_detected: whether or not an external reference is connected ("true", "false")
  • gps_detected: whether or not the device has an internal GPSDO ("true", "false")
  • using_ref: which reference the device is using ("none", "internal", "external")
  • switch_pos: switch position ("Prefer internal", "Prefer external")

Additionally, the OctoClock-G provides the following sensors to query information from the internal GPSDO:

  • gps_gpgga: raw GPGGA NMEA sentence
  • gps_gprmc: raw GPRMC NMEA sentence
  • gps_time: GPS epoch time
  • gps_locked: GPSDO lock status ("locked", "unlocked")
  • gps_servo: GPSDO servo status